Although hands and feet have many ridged areas that could be used for identification, fingerprints became a popular form of biometrics because they are easy to classify and sort. They’re also accessible. The foundation of fingerprint algorithm is based on the verification and matching by the features of fingerprint images and their related information. With year’s effort of various enterprises and research organizations, different digital algorithms have been generated. Although algorithms differ, they are all categorized as the identification and matching of the features found in fingerprint images. There are two kinds of fingerprint features for verification and matching: General Features and Partial Features.
Refers to the visually identifiable features, including:
1. Fingerprint Patterns
Other fingerprint patterns are based on these 3 basic patterns: Loop, Whorls and Arches. Only identifying fingerprints with fingerprint pattern is only a general categorization which is far from precise, a detailed classification enables quicker and more precise search of fingerprints in big-data database.
2. Mode Zone
It refers to the zone which covers the general features of fingerprint, in mode zone it is able to identify the type of fingerprint. Some fingerprint verification algorithms only uses data in mode zone.
3. Core Point
The core point is located at the gradual center of the fingerprint line pattern, it is used as a reference point for reading and matching fingerprints. Many algorithms are based on core point, which can only process and verify fingerprints with core point.
4. Triradial Point
The triradial point is located at the first segregation point or breaking point from the core point, or the junction, isolation point, or turning point of two lines, or towards these singularity. The triangular point provides a starting point of calculation and traction of a fingerprint line pattern.
5. Number of Lines
Refers to the number of lines in mode zone. Before calculation of the number of fingerprint lines,it joins the core point and triangular point first.The number of intersection of this joint line and fingerprint line pattern can be seen as the number of lines.